With the exception of the boss items, all of the others in this list were similarly easy to find. Boss items, however, were a bit more complicated. Because you only get the items after beating a boss, naturally this is a situation where there are likely to be a lot of changes all over RAM, as it's a major transition in the gameplay; this means that you can't narrow it down as easily. I had to try several locations, starting with the ones whose values made them the most probable to be correct (specifically ones that had a bit flipped on when the item was picked up).
However, there was one other complication figuring that one out: boss items are represented by two separate bit masks that are partially redundant. I first discovered the mask at 3FC, because that's the one that changes the bullet your tank fires after you get the first boss item; as it was a visual change, it was very easy to see that it was working. Once I found that, I checked to see if it was a bit flag, and confirmed it was, finding the flags for the second and third boss items by experimentation.
That's where things got weird. While this mask contained flags for boss items, the flags for the other boss items didn't seem to actually do anything. As well, while having the hover bit flag set caused hover power to be displayed (it's hidden prior to getting the third boss item), you couldn't actual hover. The bits here also did not make the upgrades show up on the pause screen. So, I went on, with my infinite life and gun power, and killed a few more bosses (somehow I still remember most of the maps of this game).
I found that there was a second bit mask with a completely different set of flags, one for each of the 7 items in the game. For the first 2 items, these flags did nothing more than make the item show up in the pause screen. For the third item (hover) this flag allowed you to hover, but did not show the hover power bar or allow you to accumulate hover power (so you still couldn't actually fly with this flag alone). I still can't imagine why it was done this way, but at least I figured out all the flags.
One thing that I couldn't figure out with cheat searches, however, was boss life. That is, I found it - repeatedly: it was in a different place every time (including even for the same boss). I correctly reasoned that this implied that the boss's life was not a special value, but that bosses were simply common entries in the list of objects in the game. As it turns out, so is the player; you just don't notice that because the player is always at index 0 in the object array and thus always at address 0x400, while the boss was stuck in whatever slot was available at the time. This led directly to the discovery of the object array itself. From there, I started looking at the struct that represented each object, beginning with offset 0xD: life.
As I've already pointed out that you tend to have to get clever when coding on a system with so little RAM, it shouldn't be surprising that maps are stored in a similarly clever way. As far as I can tell, there is only a single map for each area in the game (8 areas), which is 128x256 or less. However, the map is diced up and jam-packed in there such that they need to do some camera tricks when transitioning between areas (teleporting through some doors) to make sure you never see other sections that are contiguous in memory.
While I was working on it, I figured I should try to answer some long-standing questions about Blaster Master. To begin with, why does the power of your gun (what it actually shoots) not always match the gun power that's displayed? For example, if you have full gun (8 bars) and get hit, you take 1 bar of damage, but the effect of your gun falls beneath what 7 bars should give you. Many years ago I hypothesized that there were two variables for gun power; one was the one displayed, and one that was the actual effect: getting hit did a bit more damage to effect than the display.
It turned out to be simpler than that. It's a consequence of the fact that while most hits (I can't think of any counterexamples) do an integral number of bars of damage, life, gun, and hover are stored from 0-FF, in bytes. See where this is going? One bar = 20, but 8 bars = FF, not 100. In other words, the number of bars displayed is (x + 1) / 20. When you get full gun and then take a hit, your gun drops to DF; while this still displays as 7 bars, it doesn't give you the maximum gun effect (which requires E0). It's not clear whether this is a bug or a feature, though I'm kind of leaning toward a bug (specifically, an edge case the coders didn't think of, which could be easily solved).
All numbers are in hex.
Bosses killed: 3FB. bit x = boss x+1
Boss items 1: 3FC. same values as 3FB.
Boss items 2: 99. bit 0: hover, 1: dive, 2: wall 1, 3: wall 2, 4: crusher, 5: key, 6: hyper
Homing Missiles: 6F0
Thunderhead Missiles: 6F2
20: 2 long shots
40: 3 long shots
80: circling shots
C0: white wave shots
E0: full wave shots
Beginning of Object Table: 400. 12 slots. Slot 0 is reserved for the player. Slots 1-4 are reserved for projectiles. Enemies fill slots 5-11 as needed.
Object Struct (14 bytes)
byte @0: Object type. A few of the known object types:
5: On left wall
6: On right wall
7: On ceiling
9: Climbing H->V convex
A: Climbing V->H convex
B: Climbing horizontal->vertical concave
C: Climbing V->H concave
D/E/F 10/11/12: Entering/transitioning/leaving door right/left
1B: Outside tank
1D: Entering tank
84/85/86: Entering/transitioning/leaving door catacombs
byte @1: Orientation. The exact meaning of this seems to vary by object type.
Tank mode: Between 0 for left and F for right (the intermediates indicate that the tank is changing face), with the high bit set if the tank is pointing to the left
Catacombs mode: 0 for up, 1 for right, 2 for down, etc.
uint16 [LE] @2: Horizontal position. The high byte indicates the attribute-size tile, while the bottom byte is the position within that tile. The highest bit indicates that you're currently moving through a teleporting door.
uint16 [LE] @4: Vertical position
byte @6: X velocity
byte @7: Y velocity
byte @8: Attribute-size tile index on screen? This was always observed to be (Y * 0x11) + X where X and Y are relative to the tiles visible on screen.
byte @9: Hit timer: the number of ticks until the object can be hit again. Controls invulnerability, damage flashing, and also decreases gun by 1 for each tick above 1 (this causes gun power to drop smoothly rather than suddenly, though I'm not sure why they did it this way; life does not do this when damage is taken).
byte @A: Current AI state
byte @B: Frames till AI state change
byte @C: ?? (no observed effect)
byte @D: Life. For trivia value, normal tank shot does 4, hyper shot does 6, crusher shot does 8, normal catacomb shot does 1, catacomb shot with wave gun does 2, and grenades do 2.
Note that the AI state bytes in the struct are for simple enemies. Bosses have other state stored elsewhere. For example, in the above crab boss, the AI state and timer control movement but not spraying bubbles, which occurs entirely independently. The density of bubble spray, however, was directly controlled by the life of the boss; e.g. below 0x20 life (it starts with 50) it does the full sawtooth volley with dozens of bubbles.